Golf Terms

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A hole made in one stroke.

Refers to a score made over more than one round of play, or by 2 or more players playing as partners.

A swing and a miss. You knew the ball was there, you just couldn't find it.

Former name of a "Double Eagle" - the score for a hole made in 3 strokes under par. A British term.

A player who doesn't play for money.

Angle of Approach
The angle or degree at which the club moves downward, or upward, toward the ball.

Approach Shot
Normally a short or medium shot played to the putting green or pin.

The grassy area surrounding the putting surface. See fringe.

The ball that is the greatest distance from the hole when more than one golfer is playing. It is the first to be played.

Back Door
The rear of the hole.

Back Lip(s)
The edge of the bunker that is farthest from the green.

A reverse spin placed on a ball to make it stop quickly on the putting surface.

The backward part of the swing starting from the ground and going over the head.

An obsolete term, Scottish in origin, meaning to hit or graze the ground behind the ball.

Previous name given to a 5 wood.

A lofted wooden club developed from the baffling-spoon no longer in use. Also the alternate name given to the 4 wood.

Bail Out
To avoid trouble, such as a water hazard, in one area by hitting the ball well into another area.

A hard resilient sap-like substance that is used to make a cover for rubber-cored golf balls.

The round object which we attempt to hit into the hole. Prior to the 17th century it was made from wood or wool in a leather cover. After the 17th century feathers were boiled and compressed, then sewn in a leather cover. In the 1850's it was made of strip rubber wound around a core. Presently made of compressed synthetic rubber with hundreds of surface indentations which aid the flight of the ball.

Ball in Play
A ball is in play as soon as the player has made a stroke in the tee off area. It remains in play until it is holed out, lost, hit out of bounds, or lifted when allowed by the rules of golf.

Ball Marker
A circular token or small coin used to mark the spots on the green that the ball rests on. Purpose of this is to clean or replace the ball, also so opponent doesn't have to putt around your ball.

Ball Retriever
A long pole with a scoop at the end which is used to collect balls from water hazards and other areas.

Banana Ball
A slice that curves to the right in the shape of a banana. An extreme slice.

Baseball Grip
Holding the club with all ten fingers on the grip.

A sand hazard on the course.

Bent Grass
Type of grass seen for the most part on Northern courses. It is native to North America and Eurasia. It is very hardy and resilient allowing it to be cut very short.

Type of grass seen mostly on Southern courses in North America. It was introduced to warmer areas of the world where bent grass will not grow.

Best Ball
A match in which one player plays against the better of two balls or the best ball of three players.

One stroke under par for a hole. Possibly derived from term "It flew like a bird." to indicate a good shot.

Bird's Nest
A lie in which the ball is cupped in deep grass.

The backspin imarted on the ball that makes the ball stop dead, or almost so, with little or no roll.

1) The hitting part of an iron clubhead, not including the hosel. 2) To hit the ball with the leading edge of the blade of an iron.

A shot that takes a large amount of sand with it when hitting out of a sand trap. An explosion shot. An aggressive shot. A powerful drive.

Blind Hole
If the putting green cannot be seen by the player as he approaches, the hole is called blind.

To play a shot by delaying the rotation of the wrists during a swing. This causes the clubface not to be square at the point of impact resulting in a sliced ball.

A score of one over par for the hole. To play a hole in one stroke over par.

To play to one side of the hole or the other to compensate for the slope of the green.

This refers to a shot that appears to be horrible and then hits a tree, a rock, a spectator, etc. and bounces back into play. Pronounced "boughkur".

Former name given to a 2 wood. A wooden club with a brass sole plate with more loft than a driver and less than the than the spoon.

The way in which the ball will roll or bounce. Also the sideways slope on the green.

The curve across the face of a wooden club.

A depression in bare ground that is usually covered with sand. Also called a "sand trap". It is considered a hazard under the Rules of Golf.

Scottish term for a creek or stream.

A term used in tournaments. The player who draws a "bye" is allowed to advance to the next round without playing an opponent. In match play, it is the hole or holes still left to play if the match is won before the 18th hole.

Caddie (caddy)
Someone who carries a player's club during play and offers him assistance in accordance with the rules.

In slang, to hole a putt.

A card used to record scores in stroke play. Also, to make a record of your score.

A slang term referring to the putting green or fairway.

The length of travel by the ball after it is hit to the place where it first hits the ground.

A two-wheeled trolley on which a golf  bag is fitted and pulled around the course. In some cases trolleys are battery powered. Can also refer to a golf car.

Casual Water
Any temporary accumulations of water that are visible before or after a player takes his stance and is not a hazard or in a water hazard. A player may lift his ball from casual water without penalty.

Chart the Course
Pace each hole so that you know how far you are from the green.

To hit the ground before the ball, producing a weak lofted shot.

Chip Shot
A short approach shot of low trajectory usually hit from near the green. It is normally hit with overspin or bite.

A chip shot including the run of the ball after landing.

Chip in
A holed chip shot.

1) To grip down farther on the club handle. 2) A slang term used to indicate a collapse under pressure.

To hit the ball with a hacking motion.

Any one of many narrow-bladed iron clubs used for long shots through the green from the rough or sand. Another name for the # 1 iron.

Closed Face
When the clubface is pointed to the left of the target when you address the ball.

Closed Stance
The left foot extends over the balls line of flight while the right foot is back.

The implement used in golf to strike the ball. Consists of a shaft, grip and a clubhead of wood or metal.

Club Head
The hitting area of the club.

The main building on the course.

To bend the wrists backwards in the backswing.

The grassy fringe surrounding the putting green.

Come Back Shot
The shot you make after you have overshot the hole.

The flattening of the ball against the clubface at impact. Also the degree of resilience of a ball.

Control Shot
A shot that is played with less than full power.

The playing area which is usually made up of 9 or 18 holes with each hole having a tee off area, fairway and green.

Cross Bunker
A lengthy bunker that is situated across the fairway.

Cross-Handed Grip
A grip where your left hand is below the right.

1) The score that reduces the field to a pre-determined number and eliminates players in a tournament. Usually made after 36 of a 72 hole tournament. 2) A controlled shot that results in the ball stopping almost immediately on the green without roll.

A controlled shot that results in the ball stopping almost immediately on the green without roll.

The round indentations on the golf ball cover which are scientifically designed to enable the ball to make a steady and true flight.

A piece of turf removed with by the club when making a shot. It is always replaced and tamped down.

A left or right bend in the fairway.

When playing in match play, being five up with five to go, four up with four left, etc. To be as many holes up as there are to play. Sometimes spelled dormy.

Being a specific number of holes behind your opponent.

Downhill Lie
When addressing the ball and your right foot is higher than your left (for right-handed players).

The motion of swinging a club from the top of the swing to the point of impact.

To sink a putt or chip.

1) The pairing of golfers for a match play tournament. 2) A flight path of the ball in which the ball curves gently right-to-left for a right-handed player, or left-to-right for a left-handed player.

To hit the ball with maximum force and full stroke. Usually with a driver from the tee.

The longest-hitting modern wooden club, used primarily from the tee when maximum distance is required. Also called the No. 1 wood.

Driving Range
An area or building used for the purpose of practicing tee-shots and other strokes.

1) To deposit the ball on the course after which you put the ball back in play after it has been declared unplayable or after the ball has been lost. 2) Lose a shot to par. 3) To drop in standings in a tournament. Such as from 1st to 3rd.

To mishit a shot by hitting the ground behind the ball and then top the ball. Duffer An unskilled golfer. Also called a hacker.

To hit ball into a water hazard.

Two strokes under par for a single hole. To play a hole at 2 under par.

Anything that is used by a player or is carried or worn. His ball in play is not included.

To hit the ball from sand using a steeply lofted club with the club hitting into the sand behind the ball and spraying a large amount of sand.

The hitting area or surface of the club head.

A term used to describe the slight turning of the ball from left to right (by a right-handed player) at the end of its flight. From right to left for a left-handed player.

The area of the course between the tee and the green that is well-maintained allowing a good lie for the ball.

To miss the ball completely.

Fat Shot
When the club hits the ground behind the ball. This results in high or low shots with a loss of distance.

Fetherie (feathery)
An old leather ball stuffed with compressed feathers. Replaced by the gutta percha after 1848.

Grass of the genus Festuca, widely used on for rough on golf courses.

The players in a tournament.

The marker attached to the flagstick.

A movable marker to show the location of the hole.

The amount of bend or the degree of stiffness of the club shaft.

Flat Swing
The type of swing that occurs when the club head is carried back in a flat manner - usually inside-out.

A ball is hit without spin and goes for a greater distance than normal.

1) In tournament play, the division of players with players of equal ability being placed in the same flight. 2) Could also refer to the flight of the ball.

Flip Shot
A short shot played with a high trajectory with a highly lofted iron. Usually played with a nine iron.

A poorly hit shot usually caused by hitting the ground before the ball.

The continuation of the swing after the ball has been hit.

A golfer's standard of play based on past performance.

Four Ball
A match in which the better ball of two players is played against the better ball of their opponents.

A term given to four players playing together. Also a match in which two players play against another two players with each side playing one ball. Standard grouping in recreational play.

Free Drop
A drop where no penalty stroke is incurred.

A ball half-buried in the sand.

Short grass surrounding green. Same as "apron".

The first nine holes of an 18 hole course.

The group of tournament spectators.

A putt that is certain to be made on the next shot and will most likely be conceded by an opponent.

Having the neck of a club curved so that the heel is slightly offset from the line of the shaft.

A shrub primarily found on linkland type courses. It is a spiny evergreen with bright yellow flowers. Same as whin.

The direction in which the grass on a putting lies after it has been shortly cut.

Grand Slam
The four major championships: the British Open, the U.S. Open, PGA Championship and the Masters.

A lightweight material used to make shafts and clubheads.

The whole golf course according to golf rules. However, in popular usage, it refers to the putting surface.

Green Fee
The charge made by the course to allow the player to use the course.

The charge made by the course to allow the player to use the course.

Adjacent to the putting green.

The part of the shaft by which the club is held. Covered with leather or other material. Also means the manner in which you hold the club.

Linear scoring on a clubface.

The total number of strokes required to complete a round of golf after the player's handicap is deducted.

Grounding the Club
Placing the clubhead behind the ball at address.

Ground Under Repair
Any part of the course being repaired is ground under repair. A ball that lands in such an area must be removed without penalty.

Gutta Percha
Material used in the manufacture of early golf balls. It was a hard, molded substance made from the sap of several types of Malaysian trees. These balls were in use from 1848 until the early 1900's.

To chop violently at the ball. To make bad shots. To play bad golf. Hacker is an unskilled golfer. Same as "duffer".

Half or Halved
When a match is played without a decision. A hole is "halved" when both sides play it in the same number of strokes.

The number of strokes a player may deduct from his actual score to adjust his scoring ability to the level of a scratch golfer. It is designed to allow golfers of different abilities to basically compete on the same level.

A hazard is any sand trap, bunker or water on the course that may cause difficulty. There are other types of hazards such as hollows.

The part of the club that makes contact with the ball.

The part of the club head nearest the shaft.

Wood from a native North American tree used at the beginning of the 19th century to make club shafts. Use continued until the 1920's.

To play a shot or stroke.

Hog's Back
A ridge of ground or a hole having a ridge on a fairway.

A 4 1/2" round receptacle in the green - at least 4" deep. Also refers to one of the nine or eighteen areas between the tee and the green.

Hole High
A ball that is even with the hole but off to one side.

Hole In One
A hole made with one stroke. Same as "ace".

Hole Out
To complete the play for one hole by hitting the ball into the cup.

The privilege of hitting first from the tee. Usually assigned at the first tee. After the first tee, the privilege goes to the winner of the last hole.

The hollow part of an iron club head into which the shaft is fitted.

A golfer with greater ability who purposely maintains a higher handicap in order to win more bets.

The moment when the ball strikes the club.

A golfer with greater ability who purposely maintains a higher handicap in order to win more bets.

In Play
Within the course (not out of bounds).

Being nearer the hole than the ball of your opponent.

Interlocking Grip
A type of grip where the little finger of the left hand is intertwined with the index finger of the right hand for a right handed player.

Any one of a number of clubs with a head made of iron or steel. One iron through Nine iron. The larger the numbe,r the more loft is on the club causing the ball flight to be higher and shorter.

To hit the ball from a bad lie, rough or sand, with a downward cutting motion causing the clubhead to dig into the ground beneath the ball.

A slang term for heavy rough.

Another term for bounce. Usually an unpredictable or erratic bounce.

To putt the ball with the intention leaving it short to ensure being able to hole out on the next stroke.

Lateral Hazard
Any hazard running parallel to the line of play.

Lay Up
To play a shorter shot than normally might be attempted. Would be done to achieve a good lie short of a hazard rather than trying to hit the green in one less shot.

The manner in which the holes are placed on the golf course when designed.

The position in which the ball rests on the ground. The lie can be good or bad in terms of the nature of ground where is rests, the slope, and the level of difficulty in playing it. The number of strokes a player is to have played during the hole.

The correct path of a putt to the hole when putting. Also when on the fairway, the correct direction in which the ball to be played toward the putting green.

Line Up
To study the green in order to determine how the putt should be played.

Originally meaning a seaside course, it is now used to mean any golf course.

The top rim of the hole or cup.

Lob Shot
A shot that goes straight up and comes almost straight down with very little spin or forward momentum. Useful when there is not much green to play to.

The elevation of the ball in the air. Also means the angle at which the club face is set from the vertical and is used to lift the ball into the air. It is measured precisely as the angle between the face and a line parallel to the shaft.

A putter that has a head that is much wider and heavier than that of a blade putter.

A small object, like a coin, that is used to mark the spot of the ball when it is lifted off the putting green.

The objects placed at the teeing round that indicate the area in which players must tee their balls.

A person appointed by a tournament committee to keep order and handle spectators.

Lofted iron club that was introduced in the 1880's and is no longer in use. Used for pitching with backspin. Another name for the number 5 iron.

Match Play
A competition played with each hole being a separate contest. The team or player winning the most holes, rather than having the lowest score, is the winner. The winner of the first hole is "one up". Even if the player wins that hole by two or three strokes, he is still only "one up". The lead is increased every time the player wins another hole. The winner is the one who wins the most holes. This was the original form of golf competition.

The player with the lowest qualifying score in a tournament.

Medal Play
Same as "stroke play".

To use the wrong club for the shot.

To putt wrongly. To not read the green correctly.

To mis-hit a shot.

A second shot that is allowed to be taken in friendly play when the player has "muffed" (see above) the first one. Not allowed by the rules.

The tapered projecting part where the shaft of the club joins the head.

A player's final score after he subtracts his handicap.

An obsolete deep-bladed more steeply lofted than a mashie, used especially for playing from sand and from the rough. Old term for a 9 iron.

Nineteenth Hole
The bar at the clubhouse.

Any artificial object that has been left or placed on the course with the exception of course boundary markers and constructed roads and paths.

A club with the head set behind the shaft.

To hole the ball using only one shot on the green.

A tournament in which both amateurs and professionals are allowed to play.

Open Stance
To hole the ball using only one shot on the green.

1) The first nine holes of an 18 hole course. The second 9 holes is going "in". 2) Could also refer to the ball that is farthest from the hole.

Out of Bounds
The area outside of the course in which play is prohibited. A player is penalized stroke and distance. That is he must replay the shot with a penalty of one stroke.

To use a club that gives to much distance.

Overlapping Grip
As used by a right-handed player having the little finger of the right hand overlapping the space between the forefinger and second finger of the left hand.

Groups of two players.

The number of strokes a player should take to complete a round with good performance. Par for each hole is given on the scorecard.

A golfer who plays together with another in a match.

A tree.

Penalty Stroke
An additional stroke added to a player's score for a rules violation.

Professional Golfers Association.

Pick Up
To take up one's ball before holing out. In match play this concedes the hole or in stroke play incurs disqualification.

A short shot lofting the ball into the air in a high arc and landing with backspin.

Pitch and Putt
A short golf course designed primarily for approaching and putting.

Pitch and Run
The same as a pitch shot but hit with a lower-numbered club to reduce loft and backspin. This allows the ball to run after it lands on the putting green.

Pitching Wedge
An iron club designed for making pitch shots.

The rotation of the shoulders, trunk and pelvis during the golf swing.

Accuracy in the targeting of a shot.

To strike the ball with a club. The action of playing the game of golf.

Play Off
To determine a winner in a tie match by playing further holes or a further round.

This means number of strokes over par. A golfer wants to be under par.

Pop Up
A short, high shot.

Pot Bunker
A small, deep sand trap with steep sides.

A player who receives payment for teaching or playing in tournaments. Usually shortened to Pro.

A competition which pairs professional players with amateurs.

Pro Shop
The golf course shop operated by the head professional where equipment is sold.

Provisional Ball
A ball played if the previously played ball may be lost or out of bounds.

A ball that goes to the left of the target with little curve as hit by a right-handed player.

Low, controlled shot into the wind. It is made by slamming the club down into the ball with a short swing.

A ball that goes to the right of the target with very little or no curving for a right handed player. Or the converse for a left-handed player. As opposed to "pull".

The shot made on the putting green. From a Scottish term meaning to push gently or nudge.

Putt Out
To hole the ball with a putt.

A short-shafted club with a straight face for putting.

Putting Green
The surface area around the hole that is specially prepared for putting. This is where a player would practice putting.

Qualifying School
Where would-be professionals attempt to qualify for a pro tour such as the PGA, LPGA or NIKE tours.

Quarter Shot
A shot made with a reduced swing, less than that for a half shot.

Quitting on the Ball
Not hitting through your shot with complete effort.

R & A
Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.

An amateur golfer with little success. A touring professional who has no tournament exemptions and must compete in qualifying rounds for chances to play in tournaments.

1) A high-lofted iron club that is no longer in use. It was used for playing from sand and out of water. 2) The tool used to rake bunkers, smooths the surface. Must be done after not before playing a shot from sand.

Practice Area, See "Driving Range".

To firmly hit a putt.

Reading the Green
Determining the path which the ball will take on its way to the hole by analyzing the contour and texture of the green.

To play back into a satisfactory position on the fairway or onto the green from an undesirable position.

The point in the downswing where you uncock your wrists.

To play a shot accurately and for a great distance.

Rim Out
To run around the edge of the cup and fail to fall in.

Long grass areas.

A complete game of golf - 18 holes is one round.

Rub of the Green
Any accident, not caused by a player or caddie, that moves or stops a ball in play and for which no relief is given under the rules. This is when your ball is deflected by agencies beyond your control that are not part of the match. A bit of bad luck.

The distance the ball rolls on the ground or when it lands on the ground.

An approach shot that is close to the ground or on the ground

A golfer who lies about his ability to gain an edge in the game.

Sand Trap
The common name for a bunker. A hazard that is usually made of a hole partially filled with sand.

Sand Wedge
An iron with a heavy flange on the bottom that is used primarily to get out of sand traps.

Making par after being in a bunker.

An improper swing in which the club has a digging or scooping action.

Par play. A zero handicap. Scratch player - A player who has no handicap.

To misplay the ball by hitting or grazing the ground with the clubhead prior to hitting the ball.

A full set of golf clubs.

Set Up
To position yourself for the address.

The part of the club joined to the head.

Picking up golf balls from practice ranges.

Picking up golf balls from practice ranges.

Short Game
The part of the game that is made up of chip shots, pitching and putting.

Shotgun Start
In tournaments when players are to start at different holes; a firing of a shotgun may be used as a signal to start play.

A player who has the ability to play a great many different shots.

Can mean the first 9 holes (front side) or the last 9 (back side) of an 18 hole course. Also two or more players who are partners.

Sidehill Lie
A lie with the ball either above or below your feet.

Sink a Putt
Make a putt.

Hitting the ball at or above its center causing the ball to be hit too hard and travel too great a distance.

To hit underneath the ball sending it much higher than intended.

A shot that curves strongly from left to right as a result of sidespin for a right-handed.

Adjusts your handicap to the difficulty of the course you play. The more difficult the course, the more strokes you'll need. Under slope, golfers will no longer have a handicap. You will have an index. An average course will have a slope rating of 113. Your index is a mathematical calculation of your playing ability on an average course. Maximum index allowed is 36.4 for men and 40.4 for women.

A prolonged period of bad play.

To hit down on the ball so that it travels a short distance on the ground.

A very long putt that travels over several breaks in the green.

A very long putt that travels over several breaks in the green.

The bottom of the club head.

Spike Mark
Mark made on the green by the cleats of a golf shoe.

Old term for a 3 wood.

To hit the ball erratically off line.

Square Stance
Placing your feet in a line parallel to the direction you which the ball to travel.

The position of your feet when addressing the ball.

The pin in the hole.

Stimpmeter (Stimpmetre)
Superintendents measure green speed with a stimpmetre. Its readings give a snapshot of the green speed at that time of day. Stimpmetre readings in the five to six range mean slow greens, seven to eight mean medium, nine to 10 fast and above 11 extremely fast.

To hit a ball close to the flagstick.

A hole having a straight fairway.

The forward motion of the club head made with the intent to hit the ball whether contact is made or not.

Stroke Play
A competition in which the total number of strokes for one round, or a pre-determined number of rounds, determines the winner.

When an opponent's ball is in the line of the other player's putt. Since the ball may now be lifted, the term is used these days to refer to a tree or object in the way of a shot.

Sudden Death
When in a match or stroke competition the score is tied after completing the round, play continues until one player wins a hole.

A moderately contoured depression or dip in terrain.

Sweet Spot
The dead center of the face of the club.

The action of stroking the ball.

Swing Weight
The measure of a club's weight.

The start of the backswing.

Tap In
A very short putt.

A disposable device, normally a wooden peg, on which the ball is placed for driving. Also refers to the area from which the ball is hit on the first shot of the hole. Originally a pile of sand used to elevate the ball for driving.

Tee Off
To play a tee shot.

Tee Up
To begin play by placing the ball on the tee.

A shot played from a tee.

Teeing Ground
The area in which you must tee off your ball. Ball must be teed off within the markers and no more than two club lengths behind them.

Temporary Green
A green used in the winter to save the permanent green. Or during summer when greens are being repaired.

Texas Wedge
What the putter is called when it used from off the green. Shot played with putter from off green.

The ball is hit thin when it is hit above center with the clubhead traveling on too high a line.

To direct the ball through a narrow opening.

Three-Quarter Shot
Less than a full shot. A shot made with a reduced swing.

Also means three players playing a round together.

Tiger Tee
A slang expression for the back tee.

means "narrow".

The part of the club farthest from where in joins the shaft.

To hit the ball above its center causing it to roll or hop rather than rise.

The forward rotation of the ball in motion.

Accuracy, especially in putting.

A series of tournaments for professionals.

A stroke or match play competition. A competition in which a number of golfers compete.

The flight path of the ball.

Trouble Shot
A shot taken from a bad lie such as behind trees or in bunkers or rough.

To start the back 9 holes.

To straighten the wrists in the downswing.

Using a club that does not give the needed distance.

Same as backspin.

Unplayable Lie
A lie in which the ball is impossible to play.

1) A shot reaching at least as far as the hole. 2) A specified number of strokes you are ahead of your opponent in match play. Or number of holes ahead in match play.

Up and Down
Getting out of trouble or out of a hazard and into the hole. Usually a chip and a putt.

Upright Swing
A swing that carries the club head more directly backward and upward from the ball.

United States Golf Association

Vardon Grip
The overlapping Grip.

To make certain understanding of rules is correct before playing a shot.

Movement of the club head prior to swinging. A flourishing of the club behind and over the ball.

Water Club
Obsolete club from around the 1880's to the 1930's that was designed for playing the ball from a water hazard.

Water Hole
A hole with water, such as a stream or lake, that forces the players to shoot over it.

An iron used for short shots that has a high-loft - pitching wedge, sand wedge or a lob wedge.

To swing and miss the ball completely.

A British term for heavy rough. Gorse bushes.

The material used to wrap the space where the head and shaft are joined.

A shot played low against the wind. It is played with strong backspin and starts low and rises only toward the end of the shot.

Wild Card
Players in a tournament are placed in groupings or tee times based on "luck of the draw".

Winter Rules
Usually local golf rules that allow the player to improve the lie of the ball on the fairway.

A club, which can be made of wood or metal, that has a large head and is used for shots requiring greater distance. There is the driver and the 1 through 7 woods.

A ball hit with adequate distance that hugs the ground.

Crossing something out or marking something wrong. In examples "He hit it X-distance and She hit it Y-distance.".

Yardage or Yards
Yardage is the length from ball to it's target. Yards is the standard measurement used in golf. Unless on the green then its feet. Europe uses mainly Meters.

Yardage Rating
The rating of the difficulty in playing a hole based on yardage only.

To miss hit a putt due to an attack of yips.

Shakiness or nervousness in making a shot.

Zipped up Performance
Tidy, clean, and well Closed performance by a player.

Illistrates someone is sleeping, symbolizes boredom

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